The Comprehensive HTML Cross Reference


Miscellaneous Tags

This document describes tags that don't fit our other categories, including the crucial anchor (used in creating hypertext links) and inline image tags.

Click here to skip over the explanatory material at the top of the page and jump straight to the tags.

This table:

Support: HTML:2.0, 3.0, 3.2  Netscape:1.1+  MS Explorer:1.0+
and these icons:
(HTML 3.0 Only) (HTML 3.2 Only) (Netscape Extension) (Microsoft Extension) (Microsoft Extension 3.0)

alert you to tags and attributes that are not supported by all browsers. The support page explains the table and the icons in detail.

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Finding your way around...

Not all HTML tags are in this single file. The comprehensive list has been split into the following eight categories:

We have also provided several indexes to help you navigate through this reference. In addition to our main indexes (the compact index and the complete index), there are four other indexes that list the tags according to the standards and browsers that support them.

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The Comprehensive HTML Cross Reference was created as a service to the Internet community. It represents a joint effort of Scott Williams of CDI Corporate Education Services and Kate Gregory of Gregory Consulting and is fully protected by Copyright © 1995 - 2001. Please report any errors or omissions to Kate Gregory.

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Anchor


<A NAME="anchor-name">
<A HREF=
"#anchor-name">link-text</A>
<A HREF="
url">link-text</A>
<A HREF="
url#anchor-name">link-text </A>


The anchor tag defines either a link or an anchor in a document. The anchor tag must contain either a NAME attribute or an HREF attribute, or both.
There are three optional attributes that are no longer commonly used with anchor, though they are used with LINK:

REF="relationship"
defines the relationship between this document and the HREF URL.

REV="relationship"
defines the relationship between the HREF URL and this document. (REV stands for reverse, because it is the reverse of the REF attribute.)

TITLE="document-name"
No longer commonly used, indicates the TITLE of the document pointed to by the HREF URL.

Both Netscape and Explorer support the TARGET attribute as an extension. It is often used with frames, but frames are not required to use it.

(Netscape Extension) (Microsoft Extension 3.0) TARGET="target window name"
Will load the document pointed to by HREF into the window specified by "target window name"
The following are the predefined target names:
_blank
Will cause the link to be loaded into a new blank window.
_self
Will cause the link to be loaded into the same window the link was in.
_parent
Will cause the link to be loaded into the parent of this document.
_top
Will cause the link to be loaded into the full body of this window.


(HTML 3.0 Only) Anchors with a SHAPE attribute may appear inside FIG tags. These anchors are described with the FIG tag.

(HTML 3.0 Only) An anchor name can also be defined with the ID attribute in many other markup tags. For example, the source:

<P ID=jumppoint>This is a paragraph with a jump point defined in it.

defines an anchor called jumppoint at the start of the paragraph. Almost every element, including lists, list items, images, and headers, can have an ID attribute.

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Area
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:2.0+


<AREA SHAPE="shape" ALT="text" CO-ORDS="co-ords" HREF="URL">

<AREA SHAPE="shape" ALT="text" CO-ORDS="co-ords" HREF="URL" TARGET="target window name>

<AREA SHAPE="shape" ALT="text" CO-ORDS="co-ords" NOHREF>

The area tag, valid only within a MAP, defines areas that act as hotspots within an image. Typically a map will have multiple AREA tags; if the user clicks at a location that is inside two or more defined areas the one that appears first within the MAP entry is used.

The NOHREF attribute means that clicks here will not cause a link to be followed.

The SHAPE attribute can be one of RECT, CIRCLE, POLY or DEFAULT. CO-ORDS gives the co-ordinates, in pixels, measured from the upper left corner of the image, of the defining points for the shape. For RECT these are left, top, right, bottom. For CIRCLE they are Xcentre, Ycentre, radius. For POLY they are x1, y1, x2, y2, ... xn, yn. The DEFAULT area, maps all areas not already specified in another AREA tag and no co-ordinates are required.

(Netscape Extension) (Microsoft Extension 3.0) If Target is specified then the document pointed to by HREF will be loaded into the window specified by "target window name". The following are the predefined target names:

_blank
Will cause the link to be loaded into a new blank window.
_self
Will cause the link to be loaded into the same window the link was in.
_parent
Will cause the link to be loaded into the parent of this document.
_top
Will cause the link to be loaded into the full body of this window.

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Background Sound
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:2.0+


<BGSOUND SRC="URL">

<BGSOUND SRC="URL"LOOP=n>

The background sound tag identifies a .wav, .au, or.mid resource that will be played when the page is opened. The optional LOOP attribute will cause the resource to be played n times. LOOP="INFINITE" will cause the resource to be played continuously as long as the page is open.

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Base Font
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:1.1+ MS Explorer:2.0+


<BASEFONT SIZE=number>

The base font tag defines the base that relative FONT changes are based on. (Default is 3.)

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Blink
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:1.1+ MS Explorer:No Support


<BLINK> text </BLINK>

The blink tag highlights the text by having it blink on and off.

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Comment


<!-- comment text -->

The comment tag includes the actual comment text. Any instance of --> ends the comment. Whitespace may be included between the -- and the > but not between the <! and the first --.

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Embed
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+


<EMBED attributes> alternate HTML </EMBED>

The embed element is used to embed a plugin into a document. The OBJECT tag can also be used to embed objects. The attributes of EMBED are:

SRC="URL"
"URL" identifies the location of the object to be embedded.

 
HEIGHT=number
This specifies the height of the object, according to the UNITS attribute.

WIDTH=number
This specifies the width of the object, according to the UNITS attribute.

UNITS=units
Here units is one of pixels, meaning the width and height are measured in pixels, or en, meaning the width and height are measured in en spaces.

NAME=text
This indicates the name used by other objects or elements to refer to this object.

"OPTIONAL PARAMETER"=value
This specifies any parameters that are specific to the object. Put the name of the parameter in place of "OPTIONAL PARAMETER".

PALETTE=#rgb|#rgb
Sets the foreground or background color. The first colour is the foreground.

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Escape Sequences


&lt
&gt
&amp
&quot
(HTML 3.2 Only) &nbsp
(HTML 3.2 Only) &reg
(HTML 3.2 Only) &copy
(HTML 3.0 Only) &ensp
(HTML 3.0 Only) &emsp
(HTML 3.0 Only) &endash
(HTML 3.0 Only) &emdash

These escape sequences are used to enter characters such as <, >, &, and " into HTML documents. The mnemonics of the original four sequences from HTML 2.0 stand for Less Than, Greater Than, AMPersand, and double QUOTe. HTML 3.2 adds NonBreaking SPace, REGistered trademark and COPYright. HTML 3.0 adds EN SPace, EM SPace, EN DASH, and EM DASH. There are a number of escape sequences available for accented characters; a full list is provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C.) Use a space or semi-colon(;) after the mnemonic to indicate the end of the escape sequence; using a space will insert a space between the special character and the next part of the text, while using a semi-colon will not.

Example:
&lt;BR> will display as <BR>

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Frame
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+


<FRAME attributes>

The frame tag appears inside the FRAMESET tag and specifies one frame in the frameset. The attributes are:

SRC="URL"
The URL of the source document to be displayed in this frame. If the frame does not specify a source it will be displayed as blank space.
NAME="window name"
Here "window name" is the name associated with this frame. It can be used by the TARGET attribute in the A, BASE, AREA, and FORM tags to target this frame.

MARGINWIDTH=number
Here number is the left and right margin thickness in pixels.

MARGINHEIGHT=number
Here number is the top and bottom margin thickness in pixels.

SCROLLING=type
Here type is one of yes, no or auto. It specifies if the frame is to have a scroll bar: auto (the default) means the browser will decide.

NORESIZE
Stops the user from resizing the frame..

(Microsoft Extension 3.0) FRAMEBORDER=yes|no
Specifies if the border should be displayed.

(Microsoft Extension 3.0) FRAMESPACING=number
Here number is the spacing between frames in pixels.

(Microsoft Extension 3.0)(Netscape Extension) ALIGN = "alignment" (one of LEFT, RIGHT, TOP, TEXTTOP, MIDDLE, ABSMIDDLE, BASELINE, BOTTOM, or ABSBOTTOM.)

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Frame - Floating
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:3.0+

<IFRAME attributes> frame data <IFRAME>

The IFRAME tag defines a floating frame, and the end tag is required. The attributes for IFRAME are as follows:

ALIGN=left|center|top|bottom
This sets the alignment of the frame or of the surrounding text. The default is LEFT.
 
FRAMEBORDER=1|0

Renders a 3-D edge border around the frame. 1 (default) inserts a border. 0 displays no border.

HEIGHT=height

Controls the height (in pixels) of the floating frame.

MARGINHEIGHT=height

Controls the margin height for the frame, in pixels.

MARGINWIDTH=width

Controls the margin width for the frame, in pixels.

NAME=name

Provides a target name for the frame.

SCROLLING=yes|no

Creates a scrolling frame.

SRC=address
Displays the source file for the frame.
 
WIDTH=width

Controls the width of the floating frame, in pixels.

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Frame Set
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+


<FRAMESET attributes> frame tags </FRAMESET>

The FRAMESET tag replaces the BODY tag in a document and is used to split the documents window into a set of smaller frames. FRAMESET tags can be nested to create more complicated frame layouts. NOFRAME tags can also be placed in a frameset. The attributes are:

ROWS="row heights"
Here "row heights" specifies a list of values for the rows, each one can be specified as a percentage, a pixel value or as "*". The frameset will be split vertically into frames based on these values. Rows with "*"'s in them will have any remaining space split between them.
COLS="column widths"
Here "column widths" specifies a list of values for the columns. The width of each column can be specified as a percentage, a pixel value or as "*". The frameset will be split into frames based on these values. Columns with a width of "*" will split the space that is not assigned to other columns.

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Inline Image


<IMG attributes>

The inline image tag displays an image referred to by a URL. It must contain at least an SRC attribute. The attributes are:

ALIGN="alignment"
Here "alignment" should be one of TOP, MIDDLE, or BOTTOM. This causes the top, middle, or bottom of the image to be aligned with the text on the line containing the IMG tag.
(HTML 3.2 Only) "alignment" can also be LEFT or RIGHT, this moves the image to the left or right of the screen and allows text to flow around it.
(Netscape Extension) "alignment" should be one of LEFT, RIGHT, TOP, TEXTTOP, MIDDLE, ABSMIDDLE, BASELINE, BOTTOM, or ABSBOTTOM.
ALT="text"
Here "text" is the text to be displayed by a browser that does not display images, such as Lynx, or to be used when image display is suppressed.

(HTML 3.2 Only) BORDER=number
Here number is the border thickness in pixels. (Do not use BORDER=0 for images that are links.)

(Microsoft Extension) CONTROLS
If present, and an AVI resource is being played, displays controls under the resource.

(Microsoft Extension) DYNSRC="url"
Specifies an AVI resource to be played, or a VRML world. Always include a still image as well with the SRC attribute, for use by browsers that do not display inline video or VRML.

(HTML 3.2 Only) HEIGHT=number
This specifies the height of the image, according to the UNITS attribute.

(HTML 3.2 Only) HSPACE=number
Here number is the space, in pixels, to leave to the left and right of the image.

ISMAP="url"
This attribute indicates that this image is a server side image map.
 
(Microsoft Extension) LOOP=number
The optional LOOP attribute will cause the resource to be played number times. LOOP="INFINITE" will cause the resource to be played continuously as long as the page is open.

(Netscape Extension) LOWSRC="url"
Specifies an image to be displayed while the SRC image is being loaded. This alternate image should take much less time to download then the SRC image: it should be lower resolution, black and white, etc.
(Microsoft Extension) START="start option"
The START attribute specifies when the browser should start to play the resource specified with the DYNSRC attribute. START=FILEOPEN instructs the browser to play the resource only when the file is opened. START=MOUSEOVER instructs the browser to play the resource each time the user moves the mouse cursor over it. START=FILEOPEN,MOUSEOVER does both.

SRC="URL"
Here "URL" identifies the image source, typically a GIF or JPEG file.

(HTML 3.0 Only) UNITS=units
Here units is one of pixels, meaning the width and height are measured in pixels, or en, meaning the width and height are measured in en spaces.

(HTML 3.2 Only) USEMAP="url"
This attribute overrides the ISMAP attribute, if present, and if the browser supports client-side image maps. It uses the MAP element found at url to translate clicks.

(HTML 3.2 Only) WIDTH=number
This specifies the width of the image, according to the UNITS attribute.

(HTML 3.2 Only) VSPACE=number
Here number is the space, in pixels, to leave above and below the image.

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Java Applet
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:No Support


<APPLET attributes> applet-content </APPLET>

The Java applet tag runs a Java applet referred to by a URL. applet-content consists of optional PARAM tags, ordinary text and markup to be displayed by browsers that cannot run Java applets, and a TEXTFLOW tag if no ordinary text and markup is included. The attributes of the APPLET tag are:

CODEBASE="base"
What "base" should be used when resolving source relative URLs.
CODE="code"
The URL of the applet to be run.
NAME="applet name"
The name of the applet.
ALIGN="alignment"
Here "alignment" should be one of LEFT, RIGHT, TOP, MIDDLE, or BOTTOM.
ALT="text"
Here "text" is the text to be displayed by a browser that does not support applets.
HEIGHT=number
The height of the applet display area in pixels.

WIDTH=number
The width of the applet display area in pixels.

HSPACE=number
The space, in pixels, to leave to the left and right of the applet display area.

 
VSPACE=number
The space, in pixels, to leave above and below the applet display area.

 
DOWNLOAD=number
This specifies the order in which they are downloaded.

HEIGHT=pixels
Specifies the height of the applet display area.

HSPACE=pixels
Specifies the horizontal space in which the applet displays.

NAME=name
Identifies an applet to other applets within the HTML page.

TITLE=text
Specifies an advisory title string.
 

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Java Applet Textflow
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:No Support


<TEXTFLOW>

If an APPLET element has no ordinary text and markup in its applet-content, and contains only PARAM tags, comments, and whitespace, you should add a TEXTFLOW tag. This tag will be ignored by Web browsers but will keep SGML parsers happy.

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Map
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:2.0+


<MAP NAME="name"> area tags </MAP>

The map tag defines a client side image map It gives a name to a collection of AREA tags that are superimposed over an inline image to connect user clicks with URLs.

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Marquee
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:No Support MS Explorer:2.0+


<MARQUEE> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE ALIGN="align"> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE BEHAVIOR="behavior"> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE BGCOLOR="#rrggbb"> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE BGCOLOR="colorname"> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE DIRECTION="direction"> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE HEIGHT=n> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE HEIGHT=n%> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE HSPACE=n> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE LOOP=n> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE SCROLLAMOUNT=n> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE SCROLLDELAY=n> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE WIDTH=n> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE VSPACE=n> text </MARQUEE>
<MARQUEE WIDTH=n%> text </MARQUEE>

The marquee tag defines a moving piece of text, like a movie marquee.

The ALIGN attribute works like the ALIGN attribute in the IMG tag, setting the location of the surrounding text. "align" can be TOP, BOTTOM, or MIDDLE.

The BEHAVIOR attribute defines the way the text moves. SCROLL means that the text slides into the marquee box and out again, then repeats. SLIDE means that the text slides into the marquee box, stops when it is all in, then repeats. ALTERNATE means that the text bounces back and forth within the marquee box.

The BGCOLOR attribute specifies the colour to be used for the background. rrggbb is a six digit hexadecimal number with the first two digits specifying the red value, the middle two the green value, and the last two the blue value. Some sample colour values:

red
FF0000
green
00FF00
blue
0000FF
black
000000
white
FFFFFF
grey
888888
yellow
FFFF00
cyan
00FFFF

Colour names can be used for the BGCOLOR attribute. Valid colours are: Aqua, Black, Blue, Fuchsia, Gray, Green, Lime, Maroon, Navy, Olive, Purple, Red, Silver, Teal,Yellow, and White.

The DIRECTION attribute is LEFT or RIGHT and specifies the direction in which the text should move.

The HEIGHT and WIDTH attributes size the marquee box. If n is an absolute number, it is taken to mean pixels; if n is followed by a % sign it is taken to mean a percentage of the width or height (as appropriate) of the screen.

The HSPACE and VSPACE attributes specify a margin to the left and right, or above and below, the marquee box, in pixels.

The LOOP attribute will cause the marquee to scroll n times. LOOP="INFINITE" will cause the marquee to scroll as long as the page is open.

The SCROLLAMOUNT attribute specifies, the amount, in pixels, to move the scrolling text by each time it is drawn. The SCROLLDELAY attribute specifies the delay, in milliseconds, between drawings.

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No Break
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:1.1+ MS Explorer:2.0+


<NOBR> text </NOBR>

The no break tag defines a block of text which will have no line breaks except those explicitly requested with BR or suggested with WOBR.

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No Frames
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+

<NOFRAMES> alternate HTML </NOFRAMES>

The NOFRAMES tag specifies HTML that can be used by browsers that do not support frames. Everything between the start and end tag is ignored by browsers that understand frames.

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Object


<OBJECT> object-content </OBJECT>

The object tag will be included in a future HTML standard, code-named Cougar.

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Parameters
Support: HTML:3.2 Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+


<PARAM NAME="name" VALUE="value">

This tag, valid only within an APPLET element, passes parameters to the applet, which gets them with the getParameter() method.

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Script
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:2.0+ MS Explorer:3.0+


<SCRIPT LANGUAGE="language"><!-- script statements --></SCRIPT>

The script tag identifies script code. This can be code to be executed at this point of the document or may contain functions for use later in the document. Netscape Navigator supports JavaScript, and Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0 supports both JavaScript and VBScript. The statements are usually but not required to be enclosed in the comment tag, so that browsers that do not support scripting do not render the code as text. Functions used by the document are usually defined in the HEAD tag so that they are loaded and available before the user could do anything that might call them.

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White Space
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:3.0+ MS Explorer:No Support


<SPACER attributes>

The SPACER tag creates an area of white space within the document. The attributes for this tag are:

TYPE=type
The TYPE attribute has three possible values: horizontal (the default,) vertical, and block.
SIZE=pixels
The SIZE attribute only applies when the spacer has a type of horizontal or vertical. Then this attribute controls the absolute width or height in pixels of the spacing added
WIDTH=pixels
The WIDTH attribute only applies when the spacer is of type block. Then this attribute controls the absolute width in pixels of the spacing rectangle added
HEIGHT=pixels
The HEIGHT attribute only applies when the spacer is of type block. Then this attribute controls the absolute height in pixels of the spacing rectangle added
ALIGN=alignment
The ALIGN attribute only applies when the spacer is of type block. Then this attribute controls the alignment of the spacing rectangle in exactly the same way it would control the alignment of an IMG tag. "alignment" should be one of LEFT, RIGHT, TOP, TEXTTOP, MIDDLE, ABSMIDDLE, BASELINE, BOTTOM, or ABSBOTTOM.

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Word Break
Support: HTML:No Support Netscape:1.1+ MS Explorer:2.0+


<WBR>

The word break tag identifies a place where a word can be broken, or where a line can be broken within a NOBR block.